HIV drug resistance in Kigali, Rwanda

Data on ART outcomes as well as prevalence and incidence of transmitted and acquired HIVDR are scarce in Rwanda. We describe HIVDR at baseline as well as treatment outcomes and acquired HIVDR one year after ART initiation in a cohort of antiretroviral–naïve HIV patients initiating first line therapy in Kigali, Rwanda.

Most of the 158 participants who completed their month 12 and had VL data at month 12 (88%) were virologically suppressed (VL≤1000 copies/mL) whilst 18 had virological failure (VF, 11%). Pre-therapy HIVDR was documented 3.6% of participants with an HIVDR genotyping results at baseline. Eight of 12 participants (66.7%) with VF and HIVDR genotyping results at month 12 were found to harbor mutation(s), mostly NNRTI.

Although the findings may not be generalizable to all HIV patients in Rwanda, our data suggest that first-line ART regimen changes are currently not warranted. However, efforts to reinforce HIV prevention are needed to preserve the activity of second-line regimen. Increasing the availability and appropriate use of VL testing to monitor response to ART, ensuring high quality adherence counseling and promoting earlier presentation of patients in HIV care clinic could contribute to minimize preventable HIVDR and improve the outcome of the ART programme in Rwanda.


Low primary and secondary HIV drug resistance after 12 months of antiretroviral therapy in human immune-deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals from Kigali, Rwanda

Authored by: Rusine J, Asiimwe-Kateera B, van de Wijgert J, Boer KR, Mukantwali E, Karita E, Gasengayire A, Jurriaans S, de Jong M, Ondoa P

In: PLoS ONE 8(8): e64345. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064345 (open access)

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