16 Jan Cigarette Smoking and Inflammation, Monocyte Activation, and Coagulation in HIV-Infected Individuals Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy, Compared With Uninfected Individuals
Authored by: Kooij KW, Wit FW, Booiman T, van der Valk M, Schim van der Loeff MF, Kootstra NA, Reiss P; AGEhIV Cohort Study Group.
In: J Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 15;214(12):1817-1821.
Smoking may affect cardiovascular disease risk more strongly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than HIV-uninfected individuals. We hypothesized that an interaction at the level of the immune system may contribute to this increased risk. We assessed soluble markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]), immune activation (soluble [s]CD14 and sCD163), and coagulation (D-dimer) in HIV-infected and uninfected never, former, and current smokers. Smoking was independently associated with higher hsCRP levels and lower sCD163 levels and was borderline significantly associated with higher sCD14 and D-dimer levels. We found no evidence of a differential effect of smoking in HIV-infected individuals as compared to uninfected individuals.