Improving TB case detection in a rural population by linkage to a HIV Test and Treat Programme


The objectives of the project are:

  • to investigate the impact of incorporating TB case finding into an HIV test and treat approach on TB case notification;
  • to determine the feasibility of incorporating TB case finding into an HIV test and treat approach in a rural area, in terms of acceptability, yield and linkage to care;
  • to investigate the effectiveness of reporting TB screening results via an mHealth approach;
  • to determine the effectiveness of household contact screening via an mHealth approach;
  • to determine the most effective and cost­effective TB screening algorithm in the context of an HIV test and treat programme; and
  • to determine the association between hemoglobin levels and TB disease and if this association can be used to simplify the TB screening algorithm.


Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death globally. It is estimated that only 63% of people with active TB disease are currently being diagnosed and treated. This low case detection rate leads to missed or delayed diagnosis and treatment, and is responsible for a large burden of morbidity and mortality. Since 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a Universal Test & Treat (UTT) approach in the fight against HIV/AIDS. All individuals tested positive for HIV should start antiretroviral treatment (ART) immediately, irrespective of CD4 count or clinical stage. Tanzania adopted this approach in 2016. As the barriers to seeking TB diagnosis and care coincide with those for testing for, and enrolling into, HIV care, the aim of this project is to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing TB screening in a universal HIV test and treat model of care in rural Tanzania.

AIGHD Research Lead

Dr. Sabine Hermans


National Institute for Medical Research Muhimbili, Tanzania
Doctors with Africa CUAMM, Tanzania
National TB and Leprosy Programme, Tanzania
OLA Sisters, Shinyanga, Tanzania


Stop TB Department hosted by UNOPS